The books and film describe a planet with unforgiving sun and desolate wastelands of sand and rock. However, as you move closer to the polar regions towards the cities of Arrakeen and Carthag, the climate in the book begins to change into something that might be inferred as more hospitable.“Dune: we simulated the desert planet of Arrakis to see if humans could survive there“, a piece by Alex Farnsworth Senior Research Associate in Meteorology, University of Bristol;
Yet our model tells a different story. In our model of Arrakis, the warmest months in the tropics hit around 45°C, whereas in the coldest months they do not drop below 15°C. Similar to that of Earth. The most extreme temperatures would actually occur in the mid-latitudes and polar regions. Here summer can be as hot as 70°C on the sand (also suggested in the book). Winters are just as extreme, as low as -40°C in the mid-latitudes and down to -75°C in the poles.
The mid-latitudes, where most people on Arrakis live, are actually the most dangerous in terms of heat. In the lowlands, monthly average temperatures are often above 50-60°C, with maximum daily temperatures even higher. Such temperatures are deadly for humans.
Michael Farnsworth Research Lead Future Electrical Machines Manufacturing Hub, University of Sheffield; and Sebastian Steinig Research Associate in Paleoclimate Modelling, University of Bristol, published in The Conversation